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Ship Knowledge

Ship construction - basic knowledge of ship
Ship is a tool for sea transport. Although the ship sizes, but the major part of its structure are similar. Ship consists of the following components:
(A) of the hull (Shell)

The boat hull shell, multi-block plate is a combination of riveting or welding, including the keel flange, bend the outer plate and on the outboard panel of three parts.

(B) of the boat frame (Frame)

Ship hull as the support frame is used the general term for a variety of materials, divided into longitudinal and transverse two-part timber. Materials, including longitudinal keel, bottom and side bone bone; transverse including ribs, beams and bulkheads ship.

(C) Deck (Deck)

Deck is a steel beam of the boat shop, the hull divided into upper, middle and lower classes. The number of large vessels can be more than six deck, seven, whose role is to reinforce the hull structure and ease of loading and loading Stratification.

(D) cabin (Holds and Tanks)

Cabin is below the nail plate of space for various purposes, including the bow cabin, aft cabin, cargo, machinery spaces and boiler room and so on.

(E) Deck Construction (Super Structure)

Deck construction is the building above the main deck, the crew work for a living and storage vessels, which includes the bow room, the stern room and bridge.

Tonnage of the ship the size of the units of measurement can be divided into two weight tonnage of tonnage and volume.

(A) the tonnage of the ship's weight (Weight Tonnage)

Weight tonnage of the ship that the ship is a weight measurement unit, one metric ton of 1,000 kilograms, or 2240 pounds for a long ton, or 2,000 pounds for a short ton. Current international multi-metric as the units of measurement. Weight tonnage of the ship, and the DWT can be divided into two kinds of displacement tonnage.

(B) of the displacement tonnage (Displacement Tonnage)

Displacement tonnage of the ship in the water, row number of tons of water, but also its own weight tonnage of the ship. Displacement tonnage displacement can be divided into light and heavy displacement and actual displacement of the three.

(1) Light displacement (Ligth Displacement), also known as the lightship displacement, the crew of the ship itself and the necessary supplies with the three items the sum of the weight is minimal weight of the ship.

(2) re-displacement (Full Load Displacement), also known as the full load displacement is the ship carrying passengers, cargo load line after the draft when the highest weight, that is, the maximum weight of the ship.

(3) actual displacement (Actual Displacement), is a cargo ship after each voyage the actual displacement.

Displacement is calculated as follows:

Displacement (long ton) = L * W * draft * side-mode coefficient (cubic feet) / 35 (water) or 36 (freshwater) (cubic feet)

Displacement (tonnes) = L * W * draft * side-mode coefficient (m) / 0.9756 (seawater) or 1 (freshwater) (cubic meters)

Can be used to calculate the displacement tonnage of the ship's deadweight tons; in shipbuilding, the basis of known displacement tonnage of the ship's weight; statistical warships in the fleet size and, generally, subject to light displacement; ships through the Panama Canal, to the actual displacement as a sign tax basis.

2, DWT (Dead Weight Tonnage, abbreviated as DWT)

That can be used in the operation of the ship carrying capacity. DWT can be divided into the total dwt and net dwt.

(1) Total DWT (Gross Dead Weight Tonnage). Refers to the provisions of the ship can load line mark based on the maximum load weight, which includes ships carrying cargo on board the necessary fuel, water and other materials, the weight of the total reserves.

= Full load displacement of the total deadweight tonnage of a lightship

(2) Net DWT (Dead Weight Cargo Tonnage, short DWCT). Refers to the large amount of cargo the ship can limit the weight, also known as laden weight tons, from a total tonnage of the ship during the voyage the ship in less need for reserves of fuel, fresh water and other reserves from the weight of the difference.

DWT can be used to ship the goods statistics; as the monthly rent calculated on the basis of a charter; that the ship's carrying capacity; also be used as new ship construction costs and unit selling prices of old ships.

(B) the volume of tonnage of the ship (Registered Tonnage)

Tonnage of the ship's capacity is the volume of the unit, said the ship, also known as registered tons, is the state of the ocean provides for the registration of a ship in tonnes for the calculation and measurement units to 100 cubic feet or 2.83 cubic meters is a registered tons. Volume of tons of tonnage and volume can be divided into two volumes NRT.

1. Volume of gross tonnage (Gross Registered Tonnage, abbreviated as GRT).

Called up tonnage refers to the cabin and deck off the premises of all the internal space (or volume) of the total, is 100 cubic feet or 2.83 cubic meters equivalent to a ton from the quotient.

Volume of gross tonnage is widely used, it can be used for the state's merchant fleet statistics; that the size of the ship; for the registration of ships; for the Government to determine the shipping industry, shipbuilding subsidies or benefits: used to calculate the insurance costs, shipbuilding compensation costs, and the ship.

2, the volume of NRT (Net Registered Tonnage, abbreviated as NRT).

Called up for NRT, is deducted from the total tonnage volume of business that do not use the space for the remaining tonnage of Li, which is used to load cargo ship converted into the volume of tonnage.

NRT is mainly used for ship capacity declaration, customs clearance; as ship to the port to pay the various taxes and fees basis; as a shipping canal through the canal to pay fees based on time.

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